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This study explores the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Kenyan secondary schools. Specifically, it is a case study of four schools with no previous access to ICT. The professional development programme from which data for this study were drawn was designed to support teachers learning to integrate ICT in the curriculum. Using a mixed-method research approach, the authors collected data from multiple sources and triangulated the views of various stakeholders: questionnaires with teachers, focus groups with teachers, school leaders and ICT coordinators, field observations and document analysis. While the broader programme focused on the use of ICT, the results highlighted in this study focus on the development of the four schools with respect to 1) vision building, 2) leadership, 3) collaboration, 4) expertise and 5) access to adequate resources. The discussion centres on the challenges and opportunities inherent in understanding how to prepare schools in developing countries to integrate ICT in education.


  • Jo Tondeur (Ghent University, Research Foundation Flanders)
  • Don Krug (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada)
  • Mike Bill (VVOB - education for development)
  • Maaike Smulders (VVOB - education for development)
  • Chang Zhu (VUB - Vrije Universiteit Brussel)

This article was originally published by Taylor & Francis Online in Technology, Pedagogy and Education Volume 24, 2015 - Issue 5, the journal of the Association of Information Technology in Teacher Education (ITTE).

The paper can also be downloaded at ResearchGate.